Ross Lee: I believe maybe 6 or 7 months, the number for arrest has gone up for marijuana related arrest while driving in a vehicle had gone up somewhere close to 70%.
Christy Brown: He told us he had been given marijuana by older students in middle school. And they got it from medical marijuana dispensaries.
Shao Yang: Not only that, some of them sell marijuana. Many of them get expelled because of the sales of marijuana on campus.
Hillary Ronen: “I think by expanding the limits around schools and daycare centers, what we are saying is that there is something inherently dangerous or bad about these shops, I just really disagree with that premise. ”
Ellen Lee Zhou（社会工作者/2018年旧金山特别市长选举候选人）：“他们是强奸民意。因为600街区以内的居民85％都是反对的，人们不希望孩子们接触到毒品，不愿见到毒品进入自己的社区，但是议会仍然通过了这项条例。”
Ellen Lee Zhou: “That kills people’s voice because 85 percent of the people live nearby, within the 600 block, say no thank you. Stay away from our kids. Stay away from our residential area. But they still passed the regulation.”
Welcome to 《Zooming In》, I am Simone Gao. Since the beginning of the 20th century, most countries, including America, have enacted laws against the cultivation, possession or transfer of cannabis, a formal name for marijuana. But towards the end of the 20th century, decriminalization of the herb began. However, when California pioneered legalization of medical marijuana in 1996, few people thought it would lead to the legalization of recreational marijuana 20 years later. Now the legalization of recreational marijuana is old news, and “Safe Injection Center” are appearing that allow people to legally inject illicit drugs under supervision. What’s next? Is the U.S. entering a trap to legalizing all drugs, and is California leading the way? Let’s find out in this series of《 Zooming In》.
The Effect of Marijuana Legalization
May 16, 2018
abc news：“I-880 Fremont段发生一起惨烈车祸。5辆汽车报废，3人死亡。肇事嫌疑人21岁的司机唐，传因涉嫌吸大麻驾驶而被捕。”
“It was a devastating scene on interstate 880 on Fremont. Five mangled cars, three people dead and one driver under arrest. 21-year-old Dang Tran is in jail suspected of driving under the influence of marijuana. ”
This is not the only major traffic accident induced by marijuana a year into its legalization in California.
On the morning of December 2, 2017, a truck crashed into the San Francisco Bay Bridge toll station, killing the toll collector. The California Highway Patrol said they smelled marijuana and alcohol on the driver.
On Christmas eve the same year, California Highway Patrol officer Andrew Camilleri died when a car rear-ended him going over 100 miles per hour on I-880. The driver later admitted being under the influence of marijuana.
Ross Lee（ Officer/ California Highway Patrol/ San Jose Office ）：“I believe this is just in the Bay area, not statewide, but the number of arrest that we made you know the number of months I believe maybe 6 or 7 months, the number for arrest has gone up for marijuana related arrest while driving in a vehicle had gone up somewhere close to 70% which is serious, it’s a significant number. ”
It’s a common conception that marijuana makes a driver calm and relaxed. But what it actually does to the human body remains uncertain. According to the FDA, although chemicals in marijuana have led to two FDA-approved medications in pill form, the marijuana plant is not an FDA-approved medicine. Researchers haven’t conducted enough large-scale clinical trials to show that benefits of the marijuana plant outweigh its risks to patients.
Dr. Christy Brown, a retired Mission College professor in Santa Clara, has experienced the risks first-hand. Her 26-year-old son started using the substance when he was 14.
Dr. Christy Brown（教会学院／退休教授）：“我发现他不是偶尔的使用大麻，他每天都在吸食，他上学之前吸食而我全然不知。在他没有驾照之前我接他放学，他看上去似乎一切正常，我问他课堂上学习了什么，他想不起来。几年之前我才发现了，他告诉我他上课之前用了大麻，所以他上在课堂上无法真正集中注意力。他不得不打电话问他的朋友家庭作业的内容。作为一名老师，我总是努力想帮助他解决他的作业难题，可是我发现他完全不能集中精力在作业上，他无法专注。”
Dr. Christy Brown:“ I found out he wasn’t using it every once in a while, he was using it everyday. He was using it before he went to school and I didn’t know that. He would appear to be like ok, but when I go pick him up at school, this is before he got his driver’s license. I would say what did you do in your class, he couldn’t remember. And I found out a couple of years later, he told me he would use it before class, and he wasn’t really paying attention in class. And he would have to call his friends to know what his assignment was for homework. So I am a teacher and I basically trying to help him with his assignment when he had problems, I noticed he wouldn’t have any focus on his assignment. He couldn’t keep his attention. ”
The symptoms Dr. Brown describes can be explained scientifically. Dr. Evelyn Li, a cardiologist at the Asian Medical Clinic, showed us the difference between a normal brain and a substance-impaired brain.
Dr. Evelyn Li.mov（李医师）：“这是一个正常大脑的俯视图，这是仰视图，好像从下往上观察人体。你会发现，如果人摄入酒精，大脑中就会有小洞出现，大脑中的小洞表明那些细胞死了，失活了，且不能再恢复。 这是正常的大脑，这里我们没有发现小洞。你看，这是使用了三年可卡因的大脑，它有很多小洞，你能看到很多小洞。这是使用止疼药的大脑，你能发现一些小洞。这是吸食大麻的大脑，有非常多的小洞，大麻导致很多小洞。这是年仅十六岁的使用了两年大麻的大脑，里面很多细胞已经死了，不错，是死了。它主要作用于额叶和海马体，额叶控制人的创造力和社交能力，而海马体和人的记忆力相关。”
Dr. Evelyn Li.mov：“This is a normal brain, shooting from the top, and this is from the bottom to the top. As if looking at the human being from the bottom to the top. As you can see, if you drink alcohol you started to have holes in the brain. Holes in the brain means those cells are dead. Dead, no longer alive. You see holes in the brain. Like, this is normal, you see no holes here. You see a lot of holes here for people just use 3 years of cocaine. You see a lot of holes here. And this is mefenamic. Ok, you got holes here. And this is marijuana. You see a lot of holes. A lot of holes with marijuana. This is for two years, age of 16. There are a lot of cells that are dead. Yeah, they are dead. What it does is that it affect the frontal lobe and hippocampus. The frontal lobe is where people use it for creativities and social interactions. The hippocampus is for memory. ”
As of April 2018, four months since California began issuing temporary state licenses to cannabis operators, there are nearly 6000 licensed cannabis businesses in the state. California is the first state in the U.S. to legalize recreational marijuana use.
Coming up, all licensed retailers and individuals are only permitted to sell cannabis to adults 21 and older, but rampant marijuana use is present on middle school and high school campuses. Stay tuned to find out how this happened.
Rampant Marijuana use on middle school and high school campuses.
Dr. Brown has two sons. The older one grew up in Texas. He graduated Magna Cum Laude high school with honors and got a law degree from the Rice University. He now enjoys a successful career as a diplomat. She never expected that her younger son, born and raised in California, would take a drastically different path.
Dr. Christy Brown（教会学院/退休教授）：“他告诉我们他在中学里，有学长给他大麻。他们从医用大麻商店得到的大麻。”
Dr. Christy Brown:“ He told us he had been given Marijuana by older students in middle school. And they got it from medical marijuana dispensaries. ”
Medical marijuana had long been legalized in California by the time Dr. Brown’s son started using it. But adults from 18-21 can only get medical marijuana through their primary caregiver — theoretically.
Dr. Christy Brown（教会学院/退休教授）：“他们去找医生，可能会说，我睡不着觉，那里疼，医生也没办法测试那些。医生也不是他们常用的医生，而是他们称呼为‘给药医生’，所以基本上每个人都知道这是骗人的。”
“They went to a doctor and they would say, I can’t sleep or I have some pain and the doctor can’t really test for that. And it is not their regular doctor, it was what they call pot doctor, so basically everybody knew this is a kind of scam. ”
It is a scam that doesn’t seem to bother most people. After all, marijuana is generally perceived as non-harmful herb that makes you feel good.
Medical Marijuana is non-addictive and non-habit forming. Medical relieve can be administered instantaneously. Side effects could include euphoria, a sense of well-being, love and extreme happiness……
According to the federally funded “Monitoring the Future” study, among all grades, perceptions of harm and disapproval of marijuana use has continued to decrease over the past 20 years.
Dr. Christy Brown（教会学院/退休教授）：“因为所有别的孩子都在这么做，他就以为它没问题，所以整个的文化就是这么做没事，大麻无害，你可以这么做。反正很快大麻就合法化了，这是另一个他会用的借口。无害、我不会死、我也不会过量，他经常给我这些借口。”
Christy Brown: “Because all the other kids were doing it, he thought he didn’t have a problem. He could hide, with what other kids did, not doing it, you know, not as extreme. so this whole culture of you know, it is ok, marijuana is not harmful, you know, you can do these things, it is going to be legal soon anyway, that’s the other thing he would say. It is not harmful, I can’t die, I can’t overdose. Those kind of things, he used to give me this kind of reasons why it was ok for him to do it. ”
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, marijuana use can lead to problems, which takes the form of addiction in severe cases. 30 percent of those who use marijuana may have some degree of marijuana use disorder. People who begin using marijuana before the age of 18 are four to seven times more likely to develop a marijuana use disorder than adults. Dr. Brown’s son falls into this category. He got increasingly addicted to marijuana in his high school years when he used it multiple times a day. He progressed to running away from home to avoid treatment and getting arrested for bringing marijuana to school. By the time he was approaching 18, Dr. Brown had to face a bigger challenge.
Dr. Christy Brown（教会学院/退休教授）：“我们告诉他，在加州当你18岁的时候，你可以得到一个医用大麻卡，你可以使用医用大麻。在大麻合法化之前就是这样，他的很多朋友都在谈论要得到那种卡，这样他们就能用大麻来消遣。”
Christy Brown: “We told him, when you get to be 18 in California, you can get a medical marijuana card, you can use medical marijuana. This was true before legalization. A lot of his friends were talking about getting those cards so they could use marijuana recreationally. ”
When Dr. Brown’s son turned 18, she realized that reality was worse than what she originally feared.
Dr. Christy Brown（教会学院/退休教授）：“我发现他其实在这些大麻商店闲逛，开始为加工大麻的人工作。他开始通过制作大麻油赚钱。这是非常危险的事情，因为要使用丁烷。有很多起大麻油爆炸的事件，房子烧毁人死掉。还有制作大麻油在加州是违法的。”
Christy Brown:“ I found out that he was actually hanging out at these marijuana dispensaries started working for someone who was brewing marijuana. He started making money by making hash oil. It is a very dangerous thing because you have to use butane. And there are a lot of hash oil explosions where houses have been burned down, people have been killed. And it actually become illegal in California. ”
On November 8, 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in California. Marijuana dispensaries sprawled in metropolitan areas in Southern and Northern California. Schools quickly felt their presence.
Fremont联合学区，是北加州的明星学区。学区由42个学校组成，有近35000的学生至高中阶段的学生。学区2016年有14位国家优秀学者获得者，11所加州金带学校。自2016年年底，学区委员Yang Shao 注意到了明显的变化。
The Fremont Unified School District is one of Northern California’s star districts. It is made up of 42 schools serving nearly 35,000 students in grades K-12. It had 14 National Merit Scholars and 11 California Gold Ribbon Schools in 2016. Since late 2016, the District Councilor Yang Shao saw a distinct change.
Yang Shao（加州弗里蒙学区委员）：“娱乐用大麻在两年前合法化之后，学区开始收集在校园内滥用大麻的数据。数字显示在过去3年至少有平均12%的增长， 这意味着越来越多的学生在校园内使用大麻。不仅如此， 有的人还贩卖大麻，他们中很多人因为在校园贩售大麻被开除了。
Shao Yang (Fremont District Councilor):“ After the recreational marijuana was legalized two years ago, the school district has been collecting data on how rampant the marijuana abuse is on our campuses. The data shows there has been at least 12 percent increase on average for the last three years which indicates more and more students are using marijuana on campuses. Not only that, some of them sell marijuana. Many of them get expelled because of the sales of marijuana on campus. ”
According to Marijuana Business Daily, as of July 2018, an estimated 70% of cities and counties in California had actually prohibited cannabis companies of any stripe from setting up shop in their jurisdictions. But major metropolitan areas are exceptions. On November 28, 2017, at the San Francisco Board of Supervisors meeting, Katy Tang tried three times by supervisor Katy Tang to impose a buffer zone for Marijuana dispensaries, drug dispensaries and daycares were turned down. They were all turned down.
Katy Tang （Member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors）：“So the first one is the thousand-foot buffer zone, and it includes a daycare center as defined by the California health and safety code. ”
London Breed（旧金山市议会议长）: “对于这个修正案没有什么特别的问题了。请唱票。”
London Breed（President of San Francisco Board of Supervisors）: “No particular questions about this amendment, madam clerk, on this item. Please call the roll. ”
Supervisor Breed——no，Supervisor Cohen—— no，supervisor Farrel——no，
supervisor Fewer—— No，Supervisor Kim——aye，Supervisor Peskin—— no，
supervisor Ronen——no， supervisor Safai——aye，supervisor Shih—— no，
supervisor Tang—— aye， supervisor Yee——aye.
There are 7 nos and 4 ayes, with supervisor Breed, Cohen, Farrell, Fewer, Peskin, Ronen, Shihi in a descent. The amendment fails.
“Given that the previous motion failed, I just want to put it back to 1000-foot radius without daycare centers, which is what we have right now. ”
There are 5 ayes and 6 noes …… The motion fails.
Katy Tang: Okay, thank you. I promise this would be the last one on the buffer zone. Okay, so my next one would be 600-foot buffer centers with daycare centers.
There are 5 ayes and 7 nos ……the amendment fails.
Supervisor Tang’s motions were not only turned down. Her colleagues passionately disagreed with them.
Hillary Ronen（Member of San Francisco Board of Supervisor）：“I think by expanding the limits around schools and daycare centers, what we are saying is that there is something inherently dangerous or bad about these shops, I just really disagree with that premise. I actually think that the war on drugs is what has been dangerous for our society. There are documented evidence, plenty of it showing that where you make drugs legal and regulate them, and prevent kids to get access to them, and allow people who are already addicted to substances, not to penalize those individuals, they use less drugs and get better. That neighborhood get after. In Portugal where all drugs are legal, they have seen the society transformed and crime go down. ”
在那次会议上，议员罗南（Ronen）的动议是取消对大麻药房之间距离的所有限制。然而，Ellen Lee Zhou，社会工作者，2018年旧金山特别市长选举候选人，表示罗南的做法并不代表民意。
“ At that meeting, supervisor Ronen’s motion to remove any restrictions on the distance between cannabis dispensaries was passed. However, Ellen Lee Zhou, social worker and 2018 candidate for San Francisco special mayoral election, said Ronen does not represent the community’s real voice.”
Ellen Lee Zhou（社会工作者/2018年旧金山特别市长选举候选人）：“我曾经出席过很多次听证会。我记得很清楚。我们和他们讲，我们不想在3015 San Bruno旁边有一个大麻商店，因为在那儿旁边有一个幼儿园和托儿所。你知道他们说什么吗？他们说有必要在那儿建一个大麻商店。他们是强奸民意，因为600街区以内的居民，85%都是反对的。人们不希望孩子们接触到毒品，不愿见到毒品进入自己的社区。但是议会仍然通过了这项条例，允许大麻商店开在托儿所旁边。”
Ellen Lee Zhou:“ I was in many of the public hearings. I remember very clearly in my head. We said to them, we do not want a cannabis store next to 3015 San Bruno because there is a preschool and a daycare right next to that proposed location. You know what they say? They said it is necessary to have a cannabis store there. That kills people’s voice because 85 percent of the people live nearby, within the 600 block, say no thank you. Stay away from our kids. Stay away from our residential area. But they still passed the regulation. They allow them to have the cannabis store next to the daycare. ”
市长选举之前，根据旧金山监察委员会的政治献金报告，旧金山市议员Mark Farrell和议长London Breed，后者被选为旧金山市长，分别从当地的大麻业者那里获得了超过5万美元的政治献金。现任市议员们总共从旧金山的大麻产业业主、雇员、说客、和相关公司获得至少153,000美元。
Before the mayoral election, according to political contributions reported to the San Francisco Ethics Commission, San Francisco supervisor Mark Farrell and Board of Supervisors president London Breed, who was later elected mayor of the city, have received more than $50,000 each in reported political contributions from the local cannabis industry. In total, the members of the current Board of Supervisors received at least $153,000 from owners, employees, lobbyists and firms associated with the cannabis industry in San Francisco.
Coming up, what will legalization of recreational marijuana lead to?
After Legalizing Recreational Marijuana
Dr. Brown’s son eventually moved on to more serious drugs when he was a freshman in college. His family tried their best to help him control the addiction. He could control it for a while, but he always relapsed. At the end of each cycle he would be in an even worse situation.
Dr. Christy Brown（教会学院／退休教授）：“他最终不得不辍学，这给了他很大的震撼，因为他感到自己沈沦下去了。他想上大学，他的所有同学们都在上大学，他几乎对生活绝望了。我们发现他在滥用阿片类药物、吸食海洛因、静脉注射海洛因，他进大学后不久，就成了一个滥用多种毒品的彻底的瘾君子。”
“ What I experienced with this drug addiction was that the person tried to control it, we control it for a while and then we take over again. So it’s kind of like a cycle. And every time at the end of the cycle, he will be kind of like a downward spiral. So when he had to withdraw from school, that was a big shock for him, because that was his status in life and he was going to college and all these other friends are still in college. And he just kind of went crazy. We found out he was also using opioid pills. And we found out he started to use heroin, and he started to inject heroin. So it is very quick to going to college and going to all these drugs and become a full-blown heroin addict. ”
He ended up also developing drug-induced psychosis and was sent to mental health institutions for a while. After being arrested for driving under the influence, his mother discovered a surprising fact about him.
Dr. Christy Brown（教会学院／退休教授）：“我为他担心。我请了律师来查这件事情。我事先告诉律师，儿子有精神疾患，但是律师见了他之后却说他没问题。我感到怀疑，我们跑去见了他，当时他已经抽了4个月的医用大麻，已经出现了精神病的症候。但是他那次入狱后，因为无法在狱中抽大麻，所以仅仅过了24小时神智就恢复了正常。”
“I was really worried and I hired a lawyer to find out what was going to go on. The lawyer went to see him and I told the lawyer he is mentally ill and he is psychotic. And the lawyer went and he said to me, there is nothing wrong with your son, he is ok. I said, really? We went to see him and he has been taking this medical marijuana for 4 months and exhibiting this signs of psychosis. He went to the jail and he was fine after 24 hours for not using marijuana, he was himself basically. ”
Dr. Christy Brown（教会学院／退休教授）：“有人说这是一种病，应该由医务人员而不是执法部门来处理。但这种说法其实是不对，因为心理医生没办法帮他，他是完全的理智不清。某些情况下，当吸毒者深度上瘾，完全丧失理智的情况下，就必须由执法部门来解决问题。”
“ I talked to the psychiatrist when he was in jail and he said, don’t bail him out, he is out of control. So when they tell you that this is a disease, and it should not be law enforcement that deal with people, and it should just be the health provider to deal with people, it is really not going to work because the psychiatrist couldn’t deal with him. He is too out of control. There are some cases where the only people who are going to be able to deal with the person who is out of control addicted situation is law enforcement, unfortunately. ”
Between law enforcement and the persistent efforts of his family, Dr. Brown’s son was able to finally stop using drugs and graduate from college. Dr. Brown, however, is aware that the battle is not over. Anytime he is exposed to a drug accessible environment, he is in danger of relapsing.
On August 21, 2018, the California State Senate passed a measure that would authorize San Francisco to open a facility for injecting illegal drugs — the first of its kind in the nation. 8 days later, a mock injection center was open. One of the critiques of the injection center is that the law enforcement would potentially no longer be able to arrest people who possess drugs because they could simply say they are on their way to the “safe injection center.” For the Brown family, it means they will have one more thing to watch out for.
萧茗（Host/Simone Gao）：布朗博士一生都是民主党人。她曾投票支持医用大麻合法化，因为她觉得大麻是治疗癌症和其它疾患的必需品。 当她的学生告诉她，有高中生卖大麻给低年级同学的时候，她还不相信。直到有一天她儿子成了瘾君子。在她看来，毒品问题超越党派政治，是个常识性的问题。她对我说，如果她能事先了解到大麻的危害，她就不会投票支持医用大麻合法化。目前加州可能很快就会有许多毒品注射中心开张。舆论究竟会从执政理念的角度，还是会从维护公理的角度去看待这个问题？请看我们的下期节目——加州会走向毒品全面合法化吗？谢谢收看《世事关心》。我是萧茗。我们下周再见。
Dr. Brown is a lifelong Democrat, and she still is. She voted for legalizing medical marijuana, believing the herb is a necessary treatment for a small group of terminal disease patients. When her students told her high schoolers were selling marijuana to younger kids, she didn’t believe them until her own son became a victim. To her, drug policy is not a partisan issue, but a common-sense issue. She told me, if she knew all the facts that were hidden about marijuana, she would never have voted for legalizing medical marijuana. Now California is likely to see a boom of injection centers in the near future. Will the debate over it be about two contrasting governing philosophies, or does it really come down to basic common sense? Let’s find out in Part two of this series: Is California Pioneering Legalization of All Drugs? Thanks for watching 《Zooming In》. I am Simone Gao. See you next time.
Producer：Simone Gao David Zhang
Reporter: David Zhang Ning Han
Editors： Bonnie Yu Julian Kuo
Cameraman: York Du Teddy Lin Ken Li
Narrator: Rich Crankshaw
Interview Overdub: Kacey Cox
Transcription: Jess Beatty
Translation：Greg Yang Juan Li Xiaofeng Zhang
Special Effects：Harrison Sun
Assistant producer：Yolanda Yao Bin Tang Merry Jiang
Host accessories are sponsored by Yun Boutique
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